Fleming, R. The Materials Fall of Roman Britain, 300–525 CE (Univ. Pennsylvania Press, 2021).
Hills, C. M. Did the folks of Spong Hill come from Schleswig-Holstein? Studien zur Sachsenforschung 11, 145–154 (1999).
Hines, J. The Scandinavian Character of Anglian England within the Pre-Viking Interval (Univ. Oxford, 1983).
Hines, J. The turning into of the English: id, materials tradition and Language in early Anglo-Saxon England. Anglo Saxon Stud. Archaeol. Hist. 7, 49–59 (1994).
Brunel, S. et al. Historic genomes from present-day France unveil 7,000 years of its demographic historical past. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 117, 12791–12798 (2020).
Patterson, N. et al. Massive-scale migration into Britain through the Center to Late Bronze Age. Nature 601, 588–594 (2021).
Hills, C. M. & Lucy, L. Spong Hill Half IX: Chronology and Synthesis (McDonald Institute for Archaeological Analysis, 2013).
Bruns, D. Germanic Equal Arm Brooches of the Migration Interval Vol. 1,113 (Archaeopress, 2003).
Suzuki, S. The Quoit Brooch Type and Anglo-Saxon Settlement: a Casting and Recasting of Cultural Id Symbols (Boydell Press, 2000).
Hamerow, H. Early Medieval Settlements: The Archaeology of Rural Communities in North-West Europe 400–900 (Oxford Univ. Press, 2020).
Hamerow, H. in Migrations and Invasions in Archaeological Rationalization Vol. 664 (eds Chapman, J. & Hamerow, H.) 33–44 (Archaeopress, 1997).
Martin, T. F. The Cruciform Brooch and Anglo-Saxon England (Boydell & Brewer, 2015).
Hines, J. Clasps, Hektespenner, Agraffen: Anglo-Scandinavian Clasps of lessons A–C of the third to Sixth Centuries A.D.: Typology, Diffusion and Perform (Almqvist & Wiksell Worldwide, 1993).
Bruce-Mitford, R. A Corpus of Late Celtic Hanging-Bowls with an Account of the Bowls Present in Scandinavia (Oxford Univ. Press, 2005).
Scull, C. Additional proof from East Anglia for enamelling on Early Anglo-Saxon metalwork. Anglo Saxon Stud. Archaeol. Hist. 4, 117–122 (1985).
Gelling, M. in Anglo-Saxon Settlements (ed. Hook, D.) 59–76 (Blackwell, 1988).
Gelling, M. Signposts to the Previous: Place-names and the Historical past of England (Dent, 1978).
Lucy, S. The Early Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries of East Yorkshire: an Evaluation and Reinterpretation (BAR Publishing, 2019).
Leeds, E. T. The archaeology of the Anglo-Saxon settlements. Nature 92, 369–369 (1913).
Myres, J. N. L. The English Settlements (Clarendon Press, 1968).
Kruse, P. Jutes in Kent? On the Jutish nature of Kent, southern Hampshire and the Isle of Wight. Probleme der Küstenforschung im südlichen Nordseegebiet 31, 243–376 (2007).
Prior, F. Britain AD: a Quest for Arthur, England and the Anglo-Saxons (HarperCollins, 2004).
Montgomery, J., Evans, J. A., Powlesland, D. & Roberts, C. A. Continuity or colonization in Anglo-Saxon England? Isotope proof for mobility, subsistence observe, and standing at West Heslerton. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 126, 123–138 (2005).
Budd, P., Millard, A., Chenery, C., Lucy, S. & Roberts, C. Investigating inhabitants motion by steady isotope evaluation: a report from Britain. Antiquity 78, 127–141 (2004).
Hughes, S. S. et al. Anglo-Saxon origins investigated by isotopic evaluation of burials from Berinsfield, Oxfordshire, UK. J. Archaeol. Sci. 42, 81–92 (2014).
Schiffels, S. et al. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration historical past. Nat. Commun. 7, 10408 (2016).
Scull, C. in Europe Between Late Antiquity and the Center Ages: Current Archaeological and Historic Analysis in Western and Southern Europe Vol. 617 (eds Bintliffe, J. & Hamerow, H.) 71–83 (British Archaeological Reviews, 1995).
Ulmschneider, Ok. in The Oxford Handbook of Anglo-Saxon Archaeology (eds Hamerow, H., Hinton, D. A. & Crawford, S.) 156–171 (Oxford Univ. Press, 2011).
Ward-Perkins, B. Why Did the Anglo-Saxons not change into extra British? Engl. Hist. Rev. 115, 513–533 (2000).
Coates, R. in Britons in Anglo-Saxon England (ed. Higham, N. J.) 172–191 (Boydell & Brewer, 2007).
Tristram, H. in Britons in Anglo-Saxon England (ed. Higham, N. J.) 192–214 (Boydell & Brewer, 2007).
Schrijver, P. in Language Contact and the Origins of the Germanic Languages Vol. 13 (ed. Schrijver, P.) 12–93 (Routledge, 2014).
Richards, M., Smalley, Ok., Sykes, B. & Hedges, R. Archaeology and genetics: analysing DNA from skeletal stays. World Archaeol. 25, 18–28 (1993).
Weale, M. E., Weiss, D. A., Jager, R. F., Bradman, N. & Thomas, M. G. Y chromosome proof for Anglo-Saxon mass migration. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19, 1008–1021 (2002).
Capelli, C. et al. A Y chromosome census of the British Isles. Curr. Biol. 13, 979–984 (2003).
Leslie, S. et al. The fine-scale genetic construction of the British inhabitants. Nature 519, 309–314 (2015).
Martiniano, R. et al. Genomic indicators of migration and continuity in Britain earlier than the Anglo-Saxons. Nat. Commun. 7, 10326 (2016).
Allentoft, M. E. et al. Inhabitants genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia. Nature 522, 167–172 (2015).
Cassidy, L. M. et al. Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Eire and institution of the insular Atlantic genome. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 368–373 (2016).
Veeramah, Ok. R. et al. Inhabitants genomic evaluation of elongated skulls reveals intensive female-biased immigration in Early Medieval Bavaria. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 115, 3494–3499 (2018).
Olalde, I. et al. The Beaker phenomenon and the genomic transformation of northwest Europe. Nature 555, 190–196 (2018).
Krzewińska, M. et al. Genomic and strontium isotope variation reveal immigration patterns in a Viking Age city. Curr. Biol. 28, 2730–2738.e10 (2018).
O’Sullivan, N. et al. Historic genome-wide analyses infer kinship construction in an Early Medieval Alemannic graveyard. Sci. Adv. 4, eaao1262 (2018).
Margaryan, A. et al. Inhabitants genomics of the Viking world. Nature 585, 390–396 (2020).
Worldwide A number of Sclerosis Genetics Consortium et al. Genetic threat and a main function for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in a number of sclerosis. Nature 476, 214–219 (2011).
Genome of the Netherlands Consortium. Complete-genome sequence variation, inhabitants construction and demographic historical past of the Dutch inhabitants. Nat. Genet. 46, 818–825 (2014).
Genetic Evaluation of Psoriasis Consortium & The Wellcome Belief Case Management Consortium 2 et al. A genome-wide affiliation examine identifies new psoriasis susceptibility loci and an interplay between HLA-C and ERAP1. Nat. Genet. 42, 985–990 (2010).
Alexander, D. H., Novembre, J. & Lange, Ok. Quick model-based estimation of ancestry in unrelated people. Genome Res. 19, 1655–1664 (2009).
Sayer, D. Early Anglo-Saxon Cemeteries (Manchester Univ. Press, 2020).
Lucy, S. in Invisible Individuals and Processes: Writing Gender and Childhood into European Archaeology (eds Moore, J. S. E. & Scott, E.) 150–168 (Leicester Univ. Press, 1997).
Amorim, C. E. G. et al. Understanding Sixth-century barbarian social group and migration by way of paleogenomics. Nat. Commun. 9, 3547 (2018).
Battey, C. J., Ralph, P. L. & Kern, A. D. Predicting geographic location from genetic variation with deep neural networks. eLife 9, e54507 (2020).
Härke, H. Anglo-Saxon immigration and ethnogenesis. Mediev. Archaeol. 55, 1–28 (2011).
Hines, J. in Friesische Studien 2 Vol. 12 (eds Faltings, F. V., Walker, A. G. H. & Wilts, O.) 35–62 (Routledge, 1995).
Myres, N. M. et al. A serious Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene period founder impact in Central and Western Europe. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 19, 95–101 (2010).
Busby, G. B. J. et al. The peopling of Europe and the cautionary story of Y chromosome lineage R-M269. Proc. R. Soc. B 279, 884–892 (2012).
Haak, W. et al. Large migration from the steppe was a supply for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522, 207–211 (2015).
Brugmann, B. in The Tempo of Change: Research in Early-Medieval Chronology (eds Hines, J., Høilund Nielsen, Ok. & Siegmund, F.) 37–64 (Oxbow, 1999).
Soulat, J. in Research in Early Anglo-Saxon Artwork and Archaeology: Papers in Honour of Martin Welch (eds Brookes, S., Harrington, S. & Reynolds, A.) 62–71 (British Archaeology Reviews, 2011).
Evison, V. I. The Fifth-Century Invasions South of the Thames (Athlone Press, 1965).
Higham, N. J. Rome, Britain and the Anglo-Saxons (Seaby, 1992).
Thomas, M. G., Stumpf, M. P. H. & Härke, H. Proof for an apartheid-like social construction in early Anglo-Saxon England. Proc. Biol. Sci. 273, 2651–2657 (2006).
Kootker, L. M. et al. Past isolation: understanding previous human-population variability within the Dutch city of Oldenzaal by way of the origin of its inhabitants and its infrastructural connections. Archaeol. Anthropol. Sci. 11, 755–775 (2019).
Pinhasi, R. et al. Optimum historical DNA yields from the interior ear a part of the human petrous bone. PLoS ONE 10, e0129102 (2015).
Sirak, Ok. A. et al. A minimally-invasive methodology for sampling human petrous bones from the cranial base for historical DNA evaluation. Biotechniques 62, 283–289 (2017).
Dabney, J. et al. Full mitochondrial genome sequence of a Center Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 15758–15763 (2013).
Korlević, P. et al. Decreasing microbial and human contamination in DNA extractions from historical bones and tooth. Biotechniques 59, 87–93 (2015).
Rohland, N., Glocke, I., Aximu-Petri, A. & Meyer, M. Extraction of extremely degraded DNA from historical bones, tooth and sediments for high-throughput sequencing. Nat. Protoc. 13, 2447–2461 (2018).
Damgaard, P. B. et al. Bettering entry to endogenous DNA in historical bones and tooth. Sci. Rep. 5, 11184 (2015).
Brotherton, P. et al. Neolithic mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans. Nat. Commun. 4, 1764 (2013).
Dulias, Ok. et al. Historic DNA on the fringe of the world: continental immigration and the persistence of Neolithic male lineages in Bronze Age Orkney. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 119, e2108001119 (2022).
Kircher, M., Sawyer, S. & Meyer, M. Double indexing overcomes inaccuracies in multiplex sequencing on the Illumina platform. Nucleic Acids Res. 40, e3 (2012).
Meyer, M. & Kircher, M. Illumina sequencing library preparation for extremely multiplexed goal seize and sequencing. Chilly Spring Harb. Protoc. 2010, pdb.prot5448 (2010).
Rohland, N., Harney, E., Mallick, S., Nordenfelt, S. & Reich, D. Partial uracil-DNA-glycosylase remedy for screening of historical DNA. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370, 20130624 (2015).
Gansauge, M.-T. & Meyer, M. Single-stranded DNA library preparation for the sequencing of historical or broken DNA. Nat. Protoc. 8, 737–748 (2013).
Peltzer, A. et al. EAGER: environment friendly historical genome reconstruction. Genome Biol. 17, 60 (2016).
Fu, Q. et al. An early fashionable human from Romania with a current Neanderthal ancestor. Nature 524, 216–219 (2015).
Fu, Q. et al. DNA evaluation of an early fashionable human from Tianyuan Cave, China. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 2223–2227 (2013).
Schubert, M., Lindgreen, S. & Orlando, L. AdapterRemoval v2: speedy adapter trimming, identification, and skim merging. BMC Res. Notes 9, 88 (2016).
Li, H. & Durbin, R. Quick and correct quick learn alignment with Burrows–Wheeler rework. Bioinformatics 25, 1754–1760 (2009).
Jónsson, H., Ginolhac, A., Schubert, M., Johnson, P. L. F. & Orlando, L. mapDamage2.0: quick approximate Bayesian estimates of historical DNA harm parameters. Bioinformatics 29, 1682–1684 (2013).
Mittnik, A., Wang, C.-C., Svoboda, J. & Krause, J. A molecular method to the sexing of the triple burial on the Higher Paleolithic website of Dolní Věstonice. PLoS ONE 11, e0163019 (2016).
Lamnidis, T. C. et al. Historic Fennoscandian genomes reveal origin and unfold of Siberian ancestry in Europe. Nat. Commun. 9, 5018 (2018).
Korneliussen, T. S., Albrechtsen, A. & Nielsen, R. ANGSD: evaluation of subsequent era sequencing knowledge. BMC Bioinformatics 15, 356 (2014).
Renaud, G., Slon, V., Duggan, A. T. & Kelso, J. Schmutzi: estimation of contamination and endogenous mitochondrial consensus calling for historical DNA. Genome Biol. 16, 224 (2015).
Fu, Q. et al. A revised timescale for human evolution primarily based on historical mitochondrial genomes. Curr. Biol. 23, 553–559 (2013).
Skoglund, P. et al. Separating endogenous historical DNA from modern-day contamination in a Siberian Neandertal. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2229–2234 (2014).
Lazaridis, I. et al. Genomic insights into the origin of farming within the historical Close to East. Nature 536, 419–424 (2016).
Lazaridis, I. et al. Historic human genomes counsel three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513, 409–413 (2014).
Li, H. et al. The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools. Bioinformatics 25, 2078–2079 (2009).
Behar, D. M. et al. A ‘Copernican’ reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 90, 675–684 (2012).
Kearse, M. et al. Geneious Primary: an built-in and extendable desktop software program platform for the group and evaluation of sequence knowledge. Bioinformatics 28, 1647–1649 (2012).
Weissensteiner, H. et al. HaploGrep 2: mitochondrial haplogroup classification within the period of high-throughput sequencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 44, W58–W63 (2016).
Kennett, D. J. et al. Archaeogenomic proof reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty. Nat. Commun. 8, 14115 (2017).
Monroy Kuhn, J. M., Jakobsson, M. & Günther, T. Estimating genetic kin relationships in prehistoric populations. PLoS ONE 13, e0195491 (2018).
Lipatov, M., Sanjeev, Ok., Patro, R. & Veeramah, Ok. R. Most chance estimation of organic relatedness from low protection sequencing knowledge. Preprint at bioRxiv https://doi.org/10.1101/023374 (2015).
Sudmant, P. H. et al. An built-in map of structural variation in 2,504 human genomes. Nature 526, 75–81 (2015).
Yunusbayev, B. et al. The Caucasus as an uneven semipermeable barrier to historical human migrations. Mol. Biol. Evol. 29, 359–365 (2012).
1000 Genomes Challenge Consortium et al. A worldwide reference for human genetic variation. Nature 526, 68–74 (2015).
Behar, D. M. et al. The genome-wide construction of the Jewish folks. Nature 466, 238–242 (2010).
Kushniarevich, A. et al. Genetic heritage of the Balto-Slavic talking populations: a synthesis of autosomal, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal knowledge. PLoS ONE 10, e0135820 (2015).
Pagani, L. et al. Genomic analyses inform on migration occasions through the peopling of Eurasia. Nature 538, 238–242 (2016).
Kovacevic, L. et al. Standing on the gateway to Europe-the genetic construction of western Balkan populations primarily based on autosomal and haploid markers. PLoS ONE 9, e105090 (2014).
Value, A. L. et al. Lengthy-range LD can confound genome scans in admixed populations. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 83, 132–135; creator reply 135–139 (2008).
Anderson, C. A. et al. Information high quality management in genetic case–management affiliation research. Nat. Protoc. 5, 1564–1573 (2010).
Purcell, S. et al. PLINK: a software set for whole-genome affiliation and population-based linkage analyses. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 81, 559–575 (2007).
Patterson, N., Value, A. L. & Reich, D. Inhabitants construction and eigenanalysis. PLoS Genet. 2, e190 (2006).
Patterson, N. et al. Historic admixture in human historical past. Genetics 192, 1065–1093 (2012).
Pickrell, J. Ok. & Pritchard, J. Ok. Inference of inhabitants splits and mixtures from genome-wide allele frequency knowledge. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002967 (2012).
Reich, D. et al. Reconstructing Native American inhabitants historical past. Nature 488, 370–374 (2012).